Country Profile: Iran
Other CitiesMashad, Esfahan, Tabriz, Karaj, Shiraz
Recognised regional languages
Azeri, Kurdish, Mazandarani, Gilaki
AreaTotal 1,648,195 km2
Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran and formerly known internationally as Persia until 1935, is a country in Central Eurasia, located on the northeastern shore of the Persian Gulf and the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. Although many people use the name Iran and Persia interchangeably, officially the nation is now known as Iran, as it was once the Persian empire.
Languages and Dialects
Persian is the official language of Iran, however other languages are allowed in the fields of education and government. Some of these recognized languages are Azeri, Kurdish and relatively smaller ones such as Arabic and Armenian. Many languages have originated from Iran, but Persian is the most used language. The rich history and culture of Iran have allowed them to maintain their language and not to rely on other foreign languages, such as English or other European languages.
The nation of Iran has a very large, successful and diverse economy. It has an agricultural industry, as well as an important mining, industrical and fuel industry. The main export of Iran is oil, like so many other nation in the Middle East. Despite this wealth of oil, Iran has still taken the initiative and undergone research to further develop renewable energy resources such as wind, solar and hydroelectric.
The nation of Iran has the 2nd largest oil resrves and the 2nd largest natural gas reserves in the world. Because of these circumstances, Iran is OPEC's 2nd largest oil and natural gas producer and exporter. Even with this being said a significant amount of oil and natural gas reserves are still untapped in Iran, this is becasue the government has placed so much emphasis on cleaner, renewable energy sources, mainly hydroelectric.
Iran has an old tradition as being a leader in science and technology, dating back to the Persian Empire. They have been one of the world's leaders in terms of science and technology, along with India and China. Despite the limitations in funds, facilities, and international collaborations, Iranian scientists remain highly productive in several experimental fields as pharmacology, pharmaceutical chemistry, organic chemistry, and polymer chemistry. These fields of science are also covered by the media to an extensive amount in Iran, mostly by the Iran News Network. In the biomedical sciences, Iran's Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics is a UNESCO chair member in biology, in late 2006, Iranian scientists successfully cloned a sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer, at the Rouyan research centre in Tehran.
The most important export for Iran, other than oil is the Iranian Rug. Tabriz is the number one center for production of the famous Iranian Rugs, Tabrizian carpets are the most wanted in world markets, having many customers in western countries from Europe to California. Tabrizian rugs and carpets usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. Rugs and carpets often have very symmetrical and balanced designs. They usually have a single medallion that is surrounded with vines and palmettos and are of excellent quality. Tabrizian modern rugs are also in many different designs and colors.
In the future Iran looks to expand its economy and infrastructure, but also to keep close to its rich and prosperous past history as well. Iran has already become the world's second largest producer and exporter of oil and natural gas and in the future, they would like to become a global leader in hydroelectric energy production and exportation as well. While developing these new industries, Iran will also make sure to maintain its older industries, such as the culturally important Iranian Rug industry.
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